Technical flaws are often the items that receive the most complaints when a work is checked for quality, because they are the easiest to objectively identify. Certain kinds of technical flaws are readily apparent: incorrect spelling, bad grammar, poor use of punctuation. However, we can also holistically look at a brief passage of writing and identify it as “poorly written.” This is because there are certain usages of language which, while not technically wrong, are still sub-optimal.
One of the most common textbook examples of writing that is technically correct but less than ideal is use of passive voice instead of active voice. An example of passive voice would be:
The door was opened by the man.
The same idea can be expressed in active voice as follows:
The man opened the door.
There is a preference for active voice in this case because it expresses the same idea with greater brevity and clarity.
Paradoxically, it seems that some writers deliberately avoid brevity, perhaps under some mistaken notion that writing out more words makes them a better writer. Thus comes the flurry of needless adjectives and adverbs to describe things which need no additional characterization. Your vocabulary should be a toolbox that you use to shorten sentences, not lengthen them. For example, take this sentence:
He slowly and lazily walked his way over to the building, looking at the front gate with an expression of boredom and disinterest.
We can express it more succinctly as:
He sauntered to the building, casting a listless gaze at the front gate.
Lower word count, same message.
Adverbs are common culprits in “needless word syndrome,” as they often modify words that need no modification or can easily be replaced with words that provide the same meaning. For example, in this expression:
She quickly ran outside.
The word “quickly” is meaningless, as speediness is already implied by the word “ran.” If the word “ran” is not sufficient to describe the extent of her speed, another descriptive word can be substituted, such as “dashed” or “bolted.” Saying that someone “dashed” outside is much more exciting and engaging than saying that they “quickly ran” outside.
Length versus density
Verbosity and length are not the same thing. Verbosity refers to writing which is needlessly lengthy. A better way to describe verbosity would be a deficiency in density of writing, rather than an excess of length. Good writing is dense, expressing as many ideas in as short a span as possible. There are two ways to achieve brevity: you can express the same idea in fewer words, as described above, or you can express more in the same length.
Storytelling can be divided into three main elements: characters, setting, and plot. Your writing should advance the reader’s understanding of these elements, and you can make your writing denser by developing multiple elements at once. For example, consider the following passage:
Megan hated working in the park during the summer. She hated the sweltering, oppressive humidity. She hated the flies, drawn by the smell of summer barbecues and potato salad and human sweat. But most of all, she hated the masses of snotty-nosed children who paraded the park, filled with mirth and energy and a desire for the frozen dairy treats she peddled.
Each sentence of this passage is multifunctional in that it develops both the setting and character. By the end of the passage, we should have a good idea of what the park is like during the summer, and also an awareness of how our character Megan feels about working there.
One way that some passages lose reader interest is by focusing on a single element to the exclusion of others. For example, here is a passage that describes setting but advances neither plot or character:
I leaned back against the soft snow bank, letting the dry powder reshape itself around my weight. My skin had cooled to match the air around me, and the tiny pieces of ice felt like velvet under my skin.
The sky above me was clear, brilliant with stars, glowing blue in some places, yellow in others. The stars created majestic, swirling shapes against the black universe-an awesome sight. Exquisitely beautiful.
The above is an excellent example of too many words to convey too little meaning. (You can thank Stephanie Meyer (and her editor) for providing it.)
In your writing, look for ways that you can use certain passages to develop multiple story elements. (One way to do this is by leveraging viewpoint.) By developing multiple story elements in tandem, you can achieve more in your writing without needlessly extending the length.